Ralph Keeling is the current program director of the Scripps CO2 Program. He is also a Professor and the Principal Investigator for the Atmospheric Oxygen Research Group at SIO.




Research Interests

Measurements of variations in atmospheric oxygen

Recent perturbations to the global carbon cycle Air-sea gas exchange

Detection of ocean heat storage and transport using atmospheric gases Paleoclimate theory



B.S., Yale University, Connecticut

Ph.D., Harvard University




Selected Publications

  • 2004. Measurement of changes in atmospheric Ar/N2 ratio using a rapid-switching, single-capillary mass spectrometer system: Tellus: 56B: 322-338.
  • 2002. The change in ocean oxygen inventory associated with recent global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: 99:7848-7853.
  • 2001. Antarctic stratification and glacial CO2. Nature: 412:605-606.
  • 2001. Antarctic sea ice and the control of Pleistocene climate instability. Paleoceanography: 16:112-131,330-334.
  • 2000. The influence of Antarctic sea ice on glacial-interglacial CO2 variations. Nature: 404:171-174.
  • 1998. Seasonal variations in the atmospheric O2/N2 ratio in relation to the kinetics of air-sea gas exchange. Global Biogeochemical Cycles: 12:141-163.
  • 1996. Global and hemispheric CO2 sinks deduced from changes in atmospheric O2 concentration. Nature: 381:218-221.